File System Permissions On Linux

Umask : umask is the value with this umask mask value kernel can identify who is going to create a file or directory.

umask is the command to find out umask value

root users umask 0022
normal users umask 0002

default permissions = maximum permissions-umask

root
     max.per of a file 666
              umask    022
                     ——–
                       644

normal user
        
      max.perm of a file 666
             umask       002
                       ——-
                         664

for a directory

root
max.permisssions for a directory  777
                        umask     022
                                ——-
                                  755
normal user
max.permisssions for a directory  777
                       umask      002
                                 —–
                                  775

   we can change permissions in two methods

1) symbolic mode
2) absolute mode (numeric mode)

1)symbolic mode
—————–
 users          permissions      operators
——–               ————-           ————
u=owner(user)         r=read +
g=group w=write –
o=other x=execute =

chmod is the command to change permissions
syntax: chmod
ex: chmod u=rwx,g=rx,o=rx ds
(here we are giving full permissions to owner,read&execute for group & others

if we want to change permissions for a specific task

ex: here i want to give write to group

chmod g+w ds

2)absolute mode:
          In Absolute mode we have to provide permisions in numeric signs

r=4
w=2
x=1
syntax :
chmod 755 ds
here we are giving full permissions to owner &read execute to group & others

if we want remove total permissions for others
chmod 750 ds

                ADVANCED FILE PERMISSIONS
              ——————————–

We have three advanced file permissions.
1)suid
2)sgid
3)stikybit

1)suid :4
2)sgid :2
3)stickybit:1

suid: suid will be apply only on commands suid is used to provide root previlages on a particular administrative command for a normal user
ex: ls -l /bin/ping
In this example by default suid was applied for ping command thats why anybody can use ping command if we remove ping command nobody can use
check : chmod 755 /bin/ping
now try to ping from any user account(it wont ping) provide suid then ping once again
(providing suid chmod 4755 /bin/ping )

SGID : It is an advanced file permission for group inheritance. parent dierctory group is inherited to all files and directories.
SYNTAX : chmod g+s
ex     : chmod g+s /redhat

STICKYBIT : stickybit is an advanced file permission through which owner and root can delete his file and no other users to allow to delete files
SYNTAX  : chmod o+t
ex      : chmod o+t /redhat

   Hardlink soft link
 ————-      ———————-
1) can create only with in a partition 1)can create accross the partitions.
2) Inode number will be same. 2)Inodes numbers are different.
3) original & link file are in same size. 3)link file size is less than org.file.
4) if original file removed then also we can 4)link file can’t be accessed if
   access link file.  original file is removed.

TO CONFIGURE HARDLINK
———————-
SYNTAX :ln
ex  : ln /dev/sda /dev/sdb

TO CONFIGURE SOFTLINK
———————-
SYNTAX : ln -s
ex  : ln -s /usr/king /root/redhat

                ACL (Access Control Lists)
            ———————————-

     To configure different set of file permissions for different users on a single resource (files/folder) Acls are implemented
Acls can be applied on users and groups
To apply an Acl for an user

SYNTAX : setfacl -m u::
ex : setfacl -m u:john:rwx /redhat

To check acls of file or directory
SYNTAX :getfacl
ex : getfacl /redhat

To apply an acl for a group
SYNTAX : setfacl -m g::
ex  : setfacl -m g:sales:rwx /redhat

To Remove acl
SYNTAX :setfacl -x u::  
ex :  setfacl -x u:john:  /redhat
ex :  setfacl -x g:sales:  /redhat

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